First Colony: Jamestown
- People: John Rolfe.
- Ship: The Deliverance.
- Time: May 1610.
- Resources on the new land: 50 billion trees, 60 million bisons, gems, silver, gold
- 500 English came here before Rolfe, 60 remains. "The Starve Time".
- Rolfe plants tobacco here and made a fortune.
- Rolfe marries the daughter of the king of the Powhatan Empire(a local tribe, 20K persons): Pocahontas.
- Jamestown became American first boomtown.
- 19 black slaves from west Africa came here after 12 years.
- America is founded on tobacco.
- 30 years later, 20000 settlers in Virginia.
Second Colony: Plymouth
- People: Edward Winslow with a group of Pilgrims.
- Ship: The Mayflower.
- Time: 10 years after Rolfe arrives in Jamestown.
- Place: 450 miles up the coast from the Jamestown.
- Goal: seeking religious freedom in the New World.
- Winter comes soon, half dies within 3 months.
- Today, more than 10% Americans can trace their ancestry back to the Mayflower.
- 14 Augest 1621, the Pilgrams and their ally, a tribe, eliminate another rival tribe. And then they celebrated their friendship in a feast, which became Thanksgiving.
- More and more people came to this land through Atlantic.
- Dirt farms -> Sprawling plantations
- New York.
- Many still think of themselves as British.
Beginning of Rebellion
- Time: May 9, 1768. 7 generation after John Rolfe.
- The British want a bigger piece of the action.
- How did the rebellion go:
- A British customs official springs a surprise raid on The Liberty which belong to the richest man in Boston.
- The British sent 4000 sodiers here.
- March 5, 1770. Some of the Boston people stop doing their job, gather on King Street to blame the British.
- A 17 years old boy, Edward Garrick, lights the fuse.
- What happened next, changed the American history.
- 5 people died. "The Bloody Massacre".
During the Rebellion
- The outrage spreads across the 13 colonies.
- Boston has the first weekly newspaper. And now more than 40 papers across the colonies in total.
- The new postmaster general is Benjamin Franklin.
- In Boston, hundreds lose their jobs.
- Tensions escalate far beyond Boston. Settlers are pushing west, but the British abandon their moving.
- September 5, 1774. 56 delegates from the across the colonies gather at the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia, including John Adams, Patrick Henry and George Washington.They wants freedom.* *
- But, most delegates in Philadelphia want peace with Britain.
- The First Continental Congress resolves that a British attack on any one colony will be regarded as an attack on all of them.
- April 19, 1775. 900 redcoats move to the Lexington to capture the rebel leaders and seize their weapons. The war start here. No one knows who fire the first shot.
The Declaration of Independence
- George Washington is the commander of the revolution army in New York, where soon becomes the biggest battlefield.
- July 4, 1776. Philadelphia. The delegates ratify a document that will change the world: the Declaration of Independence. > We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. --the Declaration of Independence
- July 12th, two Bitish warships open fire on New York City.
- Over 400 warships, 32000 sodiers, the largest British Naval task force until D-day(诺曼底登陆) are heading to New York City.
- It's the biggest attack on New York City until September 11, 2011.
- New York City was occupied by the Britain, and 1/4 of the city were burned to nothing, 3000 men were captured.
New Tactics and Turning point
The Rebels take a new, more flexible tactics in the jungles: guerrilla warfare.
- First elimate the Indian guides.
- Then the British officers.
- October 17, 1777. General Burgoyne surrenders.*
This victory persuades Britain's greatest rival, France, to join the war on America's side.
The Rebels in Valley Forge
- Valley Forge. Where George Washington's army stay in the middle of a terrible winter.
- Untrained army.Von Steuben. Brings order, discipline and hygiene to Valley Forge. Writes a manual on military training with methods that are still in use today.
The Rebels in NY, a secret war
- A network of spies. Leader: Geroge Washingdon.
- The network gurantee that the French fleet sails out of danger.
- Yorktown warfare.
- 2 days laater, the British surrender and begin negotiations for peace.
- The United States is the only country to win independnce from the British in war.
- April 30, 1789. Washington is inaugurated first president of the United States of Amercia under the new constitution.
- 25000 men died.
- 1775, slash through the Cumberland Gap.
- The explorers take no supply, they get all they need from the nature.
The difficulties and dangerous they will face:
- the wild beasts.
- the aborigines.
- the redcoats.
1803, the single biggest real estate deal in history. President Tomas Jefferson buys the vast Louisiana territory from Napoleon.
1805, Lewis and Clark, the first New Amercians to reach the Pacific Ocean over land.
Then find the most valuable goods: the beaver fur.
Jed Smith, a leader of 300 hunters.
Today's Interstate 15: the trails Jed Smith forge 200 years ago.
- 1845, one of the world's great mass migrations begins.
- Ten graves in every mile. 20000 will die reaching the west.